Common Disorders Of The Lids And Adnexa

The structures present around the eyeball like the eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, and orbital walls form an important support system for the eyes and are involved in various functions like tear production and drainage, maintenance of the ocular surface, protection from trauma, etc.

Some of the commonly encountered disorders of these structures include:

  1. Acute and chronic dacryocystitis (inflammation and blockage of the tear drainage system)

In the acute stage, symptoms like pain and swelling near the inner corner of the eye are seen along with watering and discharge.
It is treated with warm compresses, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory medications.

In the chronic stage, the main symptoms will be watering and discharge. The definitive treatment is through surgery to create a new path for the tears to drain.

  1. Entropion and ectropion (malpositions of the eyelids)

Entropion is the inward turning of the eyelid margin while Ectropion is the outward turning of the eyelid margin.
These conditions can occur due to various causes:

  1. Old age – the looseness of the lower lid
  2. Eye injury
  3. Large swellings or infections of the eyelid
  4. Previous eye surgery
  5. Congenital

If left untreated, these disorders can cause corneal damage and vision loss.

Common symptoms include irritation in the eyes, redness, pain, and watering
It is treated with lid taping or suturing, BOTOX injections, or surgical repair.

  1. Ptosis (drooping of the eyelid)

This can be caused by:

  1. Congenital
  2. Eye injury
  3. Nerve paralysis
  4. Certain neuromuscular disorders like myasthenia gravis

The symptoms can range from unacceptable cosmetic appearance, problems with vision, abnormal head posture, etc
The treatment depends on the cause of ptosis and sometimes, surgical repair may be necessary.